|Kocher, Martin G. and Martinsson, Peter and Myrseth, Kristian Ove R. and Wollbrant, Conny (2012): Strong, Bold, and Kind: Self-Control and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas. Discussion Papers in Economics 2012-3|
We develop a model relating self-control, risk preferences and conflict identification to cooperation patterns in social dilemmas. We subject our model to data from an experimental public goods game and a risk experiment, and we measure conflict identification and self-control. As predicted, we find a robust association between self-control and higher levels of cooperation, and the association is weaker for more risk-averse individuals. Free riders differ from other contributor types only in their tendency not to have identified a self-control conflict in the first place. Our model accounts for the data at least as well as do other models.
|Item Type:||Paper (Discussion Paper)|
|Keywords:||self-control, cooperation, public good, risk, experiment|
Economics > Discussion Papers in Economics
|Subjects:||300 Social sciences > 300 Social sciences, sociology and anthropology|
300 Social sciences > 330 Economics
|JEL Classification:||C91, D03, H40|
|Deposited On:||25. Jan 2012 11:06|
|Last Modified:||27. Nov 2013 14:33|
Aaker, J., Drolet, A., and Griffin, D. 2008. "Recalling mixed emotions: How did I feel again?" Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 268-278.
Achtziger, A., Alós–Ferrer, C., and Wagner, A.K. 2011. "Social preferences and self-control." Working Paper, University of Constance.
Ambrus, A. and Pathak, P. 2011. "Cooperation over finite horizons: A theory and experiments." Journal of Public Economics, 95, 500-512.
Anderson, S., Goeree, J., and Holt, C. 1998. "A theoretical analysis of altruism and decision error in public goods games." Journal of Public Economics, 70, 297-323.
Andreoni, J. 1988. "Why free ride? : Strategies and learning in public goods experiments." Journal of Public Economics, 37, 291-304.
Andreoni, J. 1990. "Impure altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving." Economic Journal, 100, 464-477.
Andreoni, J. 1995. "Cooperation in public goods experiments: kindness or confusion?" American Economic Review, 85, 891-904.
Andreoni, J., Rao, J. M., and Trachtman, H. 2011. "Avoiding the ask: a field experiment on altruism, empathy, and charitable giving." Working Paper, UC San Diego.
Ayduk, O., Mendoza-Denton, R., Mischel, W., Downey, G., Peake, P.K., and Rodriguez, M. 2000. "Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 776–792.
Baumeister, R.F. 2002. "Yielding to temptation: Self-control failure, impulsive purchasing, and consumer behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 670-676.
Bénabou, R. and Pycia, M. 2002. "Dynamic inconsistency and self-control: A planner-doer interpretation." Economics Letters, 77, 419-424.
Chaudhuri, A. 2011. "Sustaining cooperation in laboratory public goods experiments: A selective survey of the literature." Experimental Economics, 14, 47-83.
Curry, O.S., Price, M. E., and Price, J.G. 2008. "Patience is a virtue: Cooperative people have lower discount rates." Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 780-785.
Eigsti, I., Zayas, V., Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., Ayduk, O., Dadlani, M. B., Davidson, M. C., Aber, J. L., and Casey, B. J. 2006. "Predictive cognitive control from preschool to late adolescence and young adulthood." Psychological Science, 17, 478-484.
Fehr, E. and Leibbrandt, A. 2011. "A field study on cooperativeness and impatience in the tragedy of the commons." Journal of Public Economics, 95, 1144-1155.
Fehr, E. and Schmidt, K. 1999. "A theory of fairness, competition and cooperation." Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 817-868.
Fehr, E, and Schmidt, K.M. 2006. "The economics of fairness, reciprocity and altruism – Experimental evidence and new theories." In Handbook on the economics of giving, reciprocity and altruism, Kolm, S-C and Mercier Ythier, J. (Eds.), 615-691. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Fischbacher, U., 2007. "z-Tree: Zurich toolbox for ready-made economic experiments." Experimental Economics, 10, 171-178.
Fischbacher, U. and Gächter, S. 2010. "Social preferences, beliefs, and the dynamics of freeriding in public good experiments." American Economic Review, 100, 541-556.
Fischbacher, U., Gächter, S., and Fehr, E. 2001. "Are people conditionally cooperative? Evidence from a public goods experiment." Economic Letters, 71, 397-404.
Fudenberg, D. and Levine, D. 2006. "A dual self model of impulse control," American Economic Review, 96, 1449-1476.
Gächter, S. 2007. "Conditional cooperation. Behavioral regularities from the lab and the field and their policy implications." Economics and Psychology. A promising new cross-disciplinary field, Frey, B. and Stutzer, A. (Eds.) CESifo seminar series. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Gächter, S. and Renner, E. 2010. "The effects of (incentivized) belief elicitation in public goods experiments." Experimental Economics, 13, 364-377.
Greiner, B., 2004. "An online recruitment system for economic experiments." In Kurt Kremer, V. M. (ed.) Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen 2003. GWDG Bericht 63, Göttingen 79-93.
Gul, F. and Pesendorfer, W. 2001. "Temptation and self-control," Econometrica, 69, 1403-1436.
Gul, F. and Pesendorfer, W. 2004. "Self-control and the theory of consumption," Econometrica, 72, 119-158.
Halali, E., Bereby-Meyer, Y., and Meiran, N. 2011. "When rationality and fairness conflict: The role of self-control in the ultimatum game." Working Paper, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
Herrmann, B. and Thöni, C. 2009. "Measuring conditional cooperation: A replication study in Russia." Experimental Economics, 12, 87-92.
Holt, C. and Laury, S. 2002. "Risk aversion and incentive effects." American Economic Review, 92, 1644-1655.
Houser, D. and Kurzban, R. 2002. "Revisiting kindness and confusion in public goods experiments." American Economic Review, 92, 1062-1069.
Katz, R. C. and Singh, N. 1986. "A comparison of current smokers and self-cured quitters on Rosenbaum’s self-control schedule." Addictive Behaviors, 11, 63-65.
Kelley, H. and Stahelski, A. 1970. "Social interaction basis of cooperators’ and competitors’ beliefs about others." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 66-91.
Keser, C. and van Winden, F. 2000. "Conditional cooperation and voluntary contributions to public goods." Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 102, 23-39.
Kocher, M. G., Cherry, T., Kroll, S., Netzer, R. J., and Sutter, M. 2008. "Conditional cooperation on three continents." Economics Letters, 101, 175-178.
Kocher, M. G., Martinsson, P., Matzat, D., and Wollbrant, C. 2011. "The role of beliefs, trust and risk preferences in contributions to a public good." Working Paper in Economics 482, University of Gothenburg.
Kreps, D., Milgrom, P., Roberts, J., and Wilson, R. 1982. "Rational cooperation in the finitely repeated prisoners’ dilemma." Journal of Economic Theory, 27, 245-252.
Ledyard, O. 1995. "Public goods: some experimental results." In Kagel, J. and Roth, A. (Eds.), Handbook of experimental economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press (Chap2).
Loewenstein, G. 1996. "Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 272-292.
Loewenstein, G. 2000. "Preferences, behavior and welfare: Emotions in economic theory and economic behavior." American Economic Review, 90, 426-432.
Milgram, N., Sroloff, B., and Rosenbaum, M. 1988. "The procrastination of ever day life." Journal of Research in Personality¸22, 197-212.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., and Peake, P.K. 1988. "The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687-696.
Mischel,W., Shoda, Y.,and Rodriguez, M.L. 1989. "Delay of gratification in children." Science, 244, 933-938.
Myrseth, K. O. R. and Fishbach, A. 2009. "Self-control: A function of knowing when and how to exercise restraint." Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 247-252.
Myrseth, K. O. R. and Wollbrant, C. 2011. "Naïve and capricious: Stumbling into the ring of self-control conflict." Working Papers in Economics 515, University of Gothenburg.
O’Donoghue, T. and Loewenstein., G. 2007. "The heat of the moment: Modeling interactions between affect and deliberation." http//:www.arts.cornell.edu/econ/edo1/heat.pdf
Palfrey, T. and Prisbrey, J. 1997. "Anomalous behavior in public goods experiments: how much and why?" American Economic Review, 87, 829-846.
Pronin, E., Olivola, C. Y., and Kennedy, K. A. 2008. "Doing unto future selves as you would do unto others: Psychological distance and decision making." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 224-36.
Romal, J. B. and Kaplan, B.J. 1995. "Differences in self-control among spenders and savers." Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 32, 8-17.
Rosenbaum, M. 1980a. "A schedule for assessing self-control behaviors: Preliminary findings." Behavior Therapy, 11, 109-121.
Rosenbaum, M. 1980b. "Individual differences in self-control behaviors and tolerance of painful stimulation." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 581-590.
Rosenbaum, M. 1989. "Self-control under stress: The role of learned resourcefulness." Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 11, 249-258.
Rosenbaum, M. and Smira, B.-A. K. 1986. "Cognitive and personality factors in the delay of gratification of hemodialysis patients." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 357-364.
Rosenbaum, M. and Palmon, N. 1984. "Helplessness and resourcefulness in coping with epilepsy." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 244-253.
Rosenbaum, M. and Rolnick, A. 1983. "Self-control behaviors and coping with seasickness." Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 93–97.
Schelling, T. 1984. "Self-command in practice, in policy, and in a theory of choice." American Economic Review, 74, 1-11.
Selten, R. 1967. "Die Strategiemethode zur Erforschung des eingeschränkt rationalen Verhaltens im Rahmen eines Oligopolexperiments." In Beiträge zur experimentellen Wirtschaftsforschung, Sauermann, H. (Ed.), Vol. I, 136-168. Tübingen: Mohr.
Sheldon, O. J. and Fishbach, A. 2011. "Resisting the temptation to compete: self-control promotes cooperation in mixed-motive interactions." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 403-410.
Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., and Peake, P.K. 1990. "Predicting adolescent cognitive and social competence from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions." Developmental Psychology, 26, 978–986.
Thaler, R. H. and Shefrin, H. M. 1981. "An economic theory of self-control." Journal of Political Economy, 89, 392-406.
Trope, Y. and Fishbach, A. 2000. "Counteractive self-control in overcoming temptation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 493-506.
Volk, S., Thöni, C., and Ruigrok, W. 2011. "Temporal stability and psychological foundations of cooperation preferences." Discussion Paper no. 2011-01, University of St. Gallen.
Zelmer, J. 2003. "Linear public goods games: A meta-analysis." Experimental Economics, 6, 299-310.