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Gruber, Hans and Hörfurter, Andreas and Kalb, Thomas and Linder, Hans and Retzlaff, Cordula and Rudat, Britta and Schneller, Elisabeth and Zschiedrich, Bettina (1997): Berufserfahrung in der Krankenpflege. (Research report No. 81). LMU Munich: Chair of Education and Educational Psychology, Internet, ISSN 1614-6336
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Abstract

It is becoming more and more difficult to develop and maintain high standards of competency in the nursing profession, especially in view of the problematic basic conditions in the health services. Besides specialist knowledge and skills, which have been the focus of traditional theories on the acquisition of expertise, work experience and the nurses' own assessment, and also society's assessment, of the significance of their role and competence in the profession are important factors, which have, until now, been completely neglected by the research on expertise, and thus are the subject of two studies. In the first study interviews were conducted with people not working in nursing (n=65); social and personal skills, but not declarative knowledge, were named as the most important criteria for the quality of the care provided. In the second study nurses (n=235) in three countries (Germany, Scotland and Finnland) where the role of those working in the nursing profession varies greatly, were interviewed by questionnaire. Significant differences were to be found in the evaluation of professional experience dependent upon sex, age (over/under 30 years) and nationality of the subjects and also dependent upon whether or not they were still active in the profession. The quality of the experience accumulated was found to interact with the reasons for choosing this particular profession. These range from social-charitable commitment to professional-medical interest. This relationship is burdened by the absence of a professionalised job-image, which also means the profession is devalued within society. It is becoming more and more difficult to develop and maintain high standards of competency in the nursing profession, especially in view of the problematic basic conditions in the health services. Besides specialist knowledge and skills, which have been the focus of traditional theories on the acquisition of expertise, work experience and the nurses' own assessment, and also society's assessment, of the significance of their role and competence in the profession are important factors, which have, until now, been completely neglected by the research on expertise, and thus are the subject of two studies. In the first study interviews were conducted with people not working in nursing (n=65); social and personal skills, but not declarative knowledge, were named as the most important criteria for the quality of the care provided. In the second study nurses (n=235) in three countries (Germany, Scotland and Finnland) where the role of those working in the nursing profession varies greatly, were interviewed by questionnaire. Significant differences were to be found in the evaluation of professional experience dependent upon sex, age (over/under 30 years) and nationality of the subjects and also dependent upon whether or not they were still active in the profession. The quality of the experience accumulated was found to interact with the reasons for choosing this particular profession. These range from socialcharitable commitment to professional-medical interest. This relationship is burdened by the absence of a professionalised job-image, which also means the profession is devalued within society.

Abstract

Gerade angesichts der problematischen Rahmenbedingungen im Gesundheitsbereich wird es zunehmend schwierig, in Berufen im Krankenpflegebereich hohe Kompetenz aufzubauen und aufrechtzuerhalten. Neben dem Fachwissen und den Fertigkeiten, die in traditionellen Expertiseerwerbstheorien fokussiert werden, sind die berufliche Erfahrung sowie die Einschätzung der Bedeutsamkeit der eigenen Rolle und Kompetenz im Beruf durch die Pflegekräfte selbst sowie durch ihr gesellschaftliches Umfeld wichtige Komponenten, die in der Expertiseforschung bisher vollständig vernachlässigt sind und daher Gegenstand zweier Studien wurden. In Studie 1 wurden Interviews mit Personen, die nicht im Krankenpflegebereich tätig sind, durchgeführt (n=65); als wichtigste Kriterien für die Qualität der Pflege wurden soziale und menschliche Fähigkeiten genannt, nicht aber Fachwissen. In Studie 2 wurden Krankenschwestern und Krankenpfleger in drei Ländern (Deutschland, Schottland, Finnland), in denen die Rolle der im Krankenpflegebereich Tätigen sehr unterschiedlich ist, mit Fragebogen zur Berufserfahrung befragt (n=233). Signifikante Unterschiede in der Einschätzung der Berufserfahrung ergaben sich in Abhängigkeit von Geschlecht, Alter (über/unter 30 Jahre) und Landeszugehörigkeit der Vpn sowie danach, ob sie noch vs. nicht mehr im Beruf aktiv waren. Die Qualität der Erfahrungsanhäufung steht in Wechselwirkung mit Gründen, diesen Beruf ergriffen zu haben. Hier bewegen sich die Pflegekräfte im Spannungsfeld zwischen sozial-karitativem Engagement und fachlich medizinischem Interesse. Belastet wird dieses Verhältnis durch das Fehlen eines professionalisierten Berufsbilds, was auch eine Abwertung des Berufs innerhalb der Gesellschaft bedeutet.