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Rübsamen, R. and Schweizer, Hermann (1986): Control of echolocation pulses by neurons of the nucleus ambiguus in the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. H. Afferent and efferent connections of the motor nucleus of the laryngeal nerves. In: Journal of Comparative Physiology, Vol. 159, No. 5: pp. 689-699
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Abstract

1. Horseradish peroxidase was applied by iontophoretic injections to physiologically identified regions of the laryngeal motor nucleus, the nucleus ambiguus in the CF/FM batRhinolophus rouxi. 2. The connections of the nucleus ambiguus were analysed with regards to their possible functional significance in the vocal control system, in the respiration control system, and in mediating information from the central auditory system. 3. The nucleus ambiguus is reciprocally interconnected with nuclei involved in the generation of the vocal motor pattern, i.e., the homonomous contralateral nucleus and the area of the lateral reticular formation. Similarly, reciprocal connections are found with the nuclei controlling the rhythm of respiration, i.e., medial parts of the medulla oblongata and the parabrachial nuclei. 4. Afferents to the nucleus ambiguus derive from nuclei of the descending vocalization system (periaqueductal gray and cuneiform nuclei) and from motor control centers (red nucleus and frontal cortex). 5. Afferents to the nucleus ambiguus, possibly mediating auditory influence to the motor control of vocalization, come from the superior colliculus and from the pontine nuclei. The efferents from the pontine nuclei are restricted to rostral parts of the nucleus ambiguus, which hosts the motoneurons of the cricothyroid muscle controlling the call frequency.