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Martin, J. A. and Savage, D. E. and Moritz, Wolfgang and Lagally, Max G. (1986): Structure, Stability, and Origin of (2×n) Phases on Si(100). In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 56, No. 18: pp. 1936-1939
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Abstract

Phases with (2×n) structure (6<n<10) can be formed on Si(100) by rapid quenching from high temperatures. The nominal (2×7) phase has been investigated by high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction. The structure involves two atomic levels, is metastable, and decays with first-order kinetics. The structure can be explained by ordering of excess missing-dimer defects, which apparently are present on the surface with any of the standard surface preparation techniques for Si(100).