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Matthes, Philipp; Höller, Christoph J.; Mai, M.; Heck, J.; Sedlmaier, Stefan J.; Schmiechen, Sebastian; Feldmann, Claus; Schnick, Wolfgang; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus (2012): Luminescence tuning of MOFs via ligand to metal and metal to metal energy transfer by co-doping of 2∞[Gd2Cl6(bipy)3]*2bipy with europium and terbium. In: Journal of materials chemistry, Vol. 22, Nr. 20: S. 10179-10187




The series of anhydrous lanthanide chlorides LnCl3, Ln=Pr–Tb, and 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) constitute isotypic MOFs of the formula 2∞[Ln2Cl6(bipy)3]*2bipy. The europium and terbium containing compounds both exhibit luminescence of the referring trivalent lanthanide ions, giving a red luminescence for Eu3+ and a green luminescence for Tb3+ triggered by an efficient antenna effect of the 4,4'-bipyridine linkers. Mixing of different lanthanides in one MOF structure was undertaken to investigate the potential of this MOF system for colour tuning of the luminescence. Based on the gadolinium containing compound, co-doping with different amounts of europium and terbium proves successful and yields solid solutions of the formula 2∞[Gd2-x-yEuxTbyCl6(bipy)3]*2bipy (1–8), 0≤x, y≤0.5. The series of MOFs exhibits the opportunity of tuning the emission colour in-between green and red. Depending on the atomic ratio Gd:Eu:Tb, the yellow region was covered for the first time for an oxygen/carboxylate-free MOF system. In addition to a ligand to metal energy transfer (LMET) from the lowest ligand-centered triplet state of 4,4'-bipyridine, a metal to metal energy transfer (MMET) between 4f-levels from Tb3+ to Eu3+ is as well vital for the emission colour. However, no involvement of Gd3+ in energy transfers is observed rendering it a suitable host lattice ion and connectivity centre for diluting the other two rare earth ions in the solid state. The materials retain their luminescence during activation of the MOFs for microporosity.