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Budweiser, Stephan; Heidtkamp, Felix; Jörres, Rudolf A.; Heinemann, Frank; Arzt, Michael; Schroll, Stephan; Schmidbauer, Kathrin; Hitzl, Andre P.; Pfeifer, Michael (2008): Predictive significance of the six-minute walk distance for long-term survival in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In: Respiration, Nr. 4: S. 418-426
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Abstract

Background: The 6-min walk distance ( 6-MWD) is a global marker of functional capacity and prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD), but less explored in other chronic respiratory diseases. Objective: To study the role of 6-MWD in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure ( CHRF). Methods: In 424 stable patients with CHRF and non-invasive ventilation ( NIV) comprising COPD ( n = 197), restrictive diseases ( RD; n = 112) and obesity-hypoventilation- syndrome ( OHS; n = 115), the prognostic value of 6-MWD for long- term survival was assessed in relation to that of body mass index (BMI), lung function, respiratory muscle function and laboratory parameters. Results: 6-MWD was reduced in patients with COPD ( median 280 m; quartiles 204/350 m) and RD ( 290 m; 204/362 m) compared to OHS ( 360 m; 275/440 m; p <0.001 each). Overall mortality during 24.9 (13.1/40.5) months was 22.9%. In the 424 patients with CHRF, 6-MWD independently predicted mortality in addition to BMI, leukocytes and forced expiratory volume in 1 s ( p <0.05 each). In COPD, 6-MWD was strongly associated with mortality using the median {[} p <0.001, hazard ratio ( HR) = 3.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24-6.38] or quartiles as cutoff levels. In contrast, 6-MWD was only significantly associated with impaired survival in RD patients when it was reduced to 204 m or less (1st quartile; p = 0.003, HR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.73-14.10), while in OHS 6-MWD had not any prognostic value. Conclusions: In patients with CHRF and NIV, 6-MWD was predictive for long- term survival particularly in COPD. In RD only severely reduced 6-MWD predicted mortality, while in OHS 6-MWD was relatively high and had no prognostic value. These results support a disease-specific use of 6-MWD in the routine assessment of patients with CHRF. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.