Lederer, Stephan R.; Friedrich, N.; Gruber, R.; Landgraf, R.; Toepfer, Marcel; Sitter, Thomas
Reduced CD40L expression on ex vivo activated CD4+T-lymphocytes from patients with excellent renal allograft function measured with a rapid whole blood flow cytometry procedure.
In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, No. 3: pp. 276-284
Background: The CD40-CD40L (CD154) costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of kidney allograft rejection. In renal transplant biopsies, CD4+ CD40L+ graft-infiltrating cells were detected during chronic rejection in contrast to acute rejection episodes. Using a rapid noninvasive FACS procedure, we were able to demonstrate CD40L upregulation in peripheral blood of patients with chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Whole blood from recipients of renal allografts was stimulated with PMA and ion-omycin and measured by flow cytometry. Patients were assigned to three groups based on transplant function. Group 1: 26 patients with excellent renal transplant function; group 2: 28 patients with impaired transplant function; group 3: 14 patients with chronic allograft dysfunction and group 4: 8 healthy controls. Results: The median percentage +/-SEM of CD4+/ CD40L+ cells stimulated ex vivo at 10 ng/ml PMA was as follows: group 1: 28.3 +/- 4.1%; group 2: 18.4 +/- 2.4%; group 3: 50.1 +/- 5.0% and group 4: 40.4 +/- 3.4%. Subdivisions of groups 2 and 3 resulted in different CD40L expression patterns. Patients with increased serum creatinine since the initial phase after transplantation ( groups 2a and 3a) revealed a higher percentage of CD4+ CD40L+ cells than patients showing a gradual increase over time ( groups 2b and 3b). Consequently, patients of group 3a exhibited a significantly reduced transplant function compared with those of group 3b. Conclusion: After PMA + ionomycin stimulation, patients with excellent kidney graft function displayed significantly reduced expression of CD40L surface molecules on CD4+ cells early after transplantation. Those with a chronic dysfunction of the renal graft showed significantly more CD4+ cells expressing CD40L compared to the other transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that the percentage of CD4+ CD40L+ cells stimulated ex vivo in peripheral blood may be a valuable marker for chronic allograft nephropathy. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.