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Wanner, Gerhard; Schroeder-Reiter, E. und Formanek, H. (2005): 3D Analysis of chromosome architecture: advantages and limitations with SEM. In: Cytogenetic and Genome Research, Nr. 1-3: S. 70-78


Three-dimensional mitotic plant chromosome architecture can be investigated with the highest resolution with scanning electron microscopy compared to other microscopic techniques at present. Specific chromatin staining techniques making use of simultaneous detection of back-scattered electrons and secondary electrons have provided conclusive information on the distribution of DNA and protein in barley chromosomes through mitosis. Applied to investigate the structural effects of different preparative procedures, these techniques were the groundwork for the ``dynamic matrix model{''} for chromosome condensation, which postulates an energy-dependent process of looping and bunching of chromatin coupled with attachment to a dynamic matrix of associated protein fibers. Data from SEM analysis shows basic higher order chromatin structures: chromomeres and matrix fibers. Visualization of nanogold-labeled phosphorylated histone H3 (ser10) with high resolution on chromomeres shows that functional modifications of chromatin can be located on structural elements in a 3D context. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.