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Wößmann, Ludger (2005): Ursachenkomplexe der PISA-Ergebnisse: Untersuchungen auf Basis der internationalen Mikrodaten. Ifo Working Paper, 16
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The paper estimates the correlates of student performance across countries using student-level data from the PISA-2000 study. There is a substantial relationship of international student performance in math, science, and reading with institutional features. In particular, there are positive associations with accountability through external exit exams, school autonomy in personnel-management and process decisions, and private operation of schools. By contrast, there is no positive association with private school funding, and a negative association with autonomy in areas with scope for decentralized opportunistic behavior. Student performanceshows a positive relationship with school autonomy particularly where external exit exams are in place, highlighting the role of external exams as �currency� of school systems. Positive associations of student performance with resource endowments of schools are mainly related to resource quality. While there is a strong association with family background, computer availability at home shows even a negative relationship with student performance on basic skills, after holding other effects constant. The explanatory power of the model between countries is remarkable.