|Aldashev, Alisher; Danzer, Alexander M. (November 2014): Economic Returns to Speaking the Right Language(s)? Evidence from Kazakhstan's Shift in State Language and Language of Instruction. Münchener Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge (VWL) 2014-50|
This paper investigates the economic returns to language skills and bilingualism. The analysis is staged in Kazakhstan, a multi-ethnic country with complex ethnic settlement patterns that has switched its official state language from Russian to Kazakh. Using two newly assembled data sets, we find negative returns to speaking Kazakh and a negative effect of bilingualism on earnings while Russian was the official state language in the 1990s. Surprisingly, the Kazakh language continues to yield a negative wage premium 13 years after it has been made official state language. While we do neither find evidence for an ethnically segmented labor market nor for reverse causality, the low economic value of the Kazakh language can be explained by the comparatively poor quality of schools with Kazakh as language of instruction. Based on PISA data, we illustrate that scholastic achievements are substantially lower for pupils taught in Kazakh, despite the official support for the titular language. Our results suggest that switching the official state language without appropriate investments in school resources is unlikely to cure the economic disadvantage of a previously marginalized language.
|Dokumententyp:||Paper (Discussion Paper)|
|Keywords:||Bilingualism, returns to language skills, wage premium, language policy, language of instruction|
Volkswirtschaft > Munich Discussion Papers in Economics
|Themengebiete:||300 Sozialwissenschaften > 330 Wirtschaft|
|JEL Classification:||J24, I21, P23, O15|
|Veröffentlicht am:||17. Nov. 2014 14:26|
|Letzte Änderungen:||17. Nov. 2014 14:58|
Aldashev, A. and Danzer, A. M. (2015). Bilingualism and economic performance. Gazzola, Michele and Bengt-Arne Wickström (eds.) The Economics of Language Policy, p. forthcoming.
Angrist, J. D. and Lavy, V. (1997). The effect of a change in language of instruction on the returns to schooling in Morocco. Journal of Labor Economics, 15 (1), S48-76.
Aspachs-Bracons, O., Costa-Font, J., Clots-Figueras, I. and Masella, P. (2008). Compulsory language educational policies and identity formation. Journal of the European.Economic Association, 6 (2/3), 434-444.
Chiswick, B. and Miller, P. (1999). Language skills and earnings among legalized aliens. Journal of Population Economics, 12 (1), 63-89.
-, Patrinos, H. and Hurst, M. (2000). Indigenous language skills and the labor market in a developing economy: Bolivia. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48 (2), 349-367.
Clots-Figueras, I. and Masella, P. (2013). Education, language and identity. Economic Journal, 123 (570), F332F357.
Dietz, B. and Gatskova, K. (2011). Migration and Remittances in Kazakhstan: Survey Technical Report. Discussion Paper no. 303, Osteuropa-Institut Regensburg.
Fierman, W. (2006). Language and education in post-soviet Kazakhstan: Kazakh-medium instruction in urban schools. The Russian Review, 65 (1), 98-116.
- (2012). Reversing language shift in Kazakhstan. Schiffman, Harold (ed.) Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors, pp. 121-175.
Grin, F. and Sreddo, C. (1998). Language-based earnings differentials on the Swiss labour market: Is Italian a liability? International Journal of Manpower, 19 (7), 520-532.
Henley, A. and Jones, R. E. (2005). Earnings and linguistic proficiency in a bilingual economy. Manchester School, 73 (3), 300-320.
Koussoudji, S. (1988). English language ability and the labor market opportunities of Hispanic and East Asian immigrant men. Journal of Labor Economics, 6 (2), 205-228.
Lazear, E. P. (1999). Culture and language. Journal of Political Economy, 107 (6), S95-S126.
McManus, W., Gould, W. and Welch, F. (1983). Earnings of Hispanic men: the role of English language proficiency. Journal of Labor Economics, 1 (2), 101-130.
Pendakur, K. and Pendakur, R. (1998). Speak and ye shall receive: Language knowledge as human capital. Breton, A. (ed.) Economic Approaches to Language and Bilingualism, pp. 89-121.
Rumbaut, R. G., Massey, D. S. and Bean, F. D. (2006). Linguistic life expectancies: Immigrant language retention in Southern California. Population and Development Review, 32 (3), 447-460.
Shapiro, D. and Stelcner, M. (1981). Male-female earnings differentials and the role of language in Canada, Ontario, and Quebec, 1970. Canadian Journal of Economics, 14 (2), 341-348.
- and - (1997). Language and earnings in Quebec: trends over twenty years, 1970-1990. Canadian Public Policy, 23 (2), 115-140.
Silova, I. (2002). The right to quality education: Creating child-friendly schools in Central Asia. Almaty, Kazakhstan: UNICEF CARK.
Williams, D. (2011). Multiple language usage and earnings in Western Europe. International Journal of Manpower, 32 (4), 372-393.