Malo, Antje; Krüger, Burkhard; Göke, Burkhard; Kubisch, Constanze H.
4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Trypsin Activation, and Acinar Cell Apoptosis While Increasing Secretion in Rat Pancreatic Acini.
In: Pancreas, Vol. 42, No. 1: pp. 92-101
Objectives: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to misfolded proteins inside the ER and initiates unfolded protein response (UPR). Unfolded protein response components are involved in pancreatic function and activated during pancreatitis. However, the exact role of ER stress in the exocrine pancreas is unclear. The present study examined the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an ER chaperone, on acini and UPR components. Methods: Rat acini were stimulated with cholecystokinin (10 pmol/L to 10 nmol/L) with or without preincubation of 4-PBA. The UPR components were analyzed, including chaperone-binding protein, protein kinaselike ER kinase, X-box-binding protein 1, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, caspase 3, and apoptosis. Effects of 4-PBA were measured on secretion, calcium, and trypsin activation. Results: 4-Phenylbutyric acid led to an increase of secretion, whereas trypsin activation with supraphysiological cholecystokinin was significantly reduced. 4-Phenylbutyric acid prevented chaperone-binding protein up-regulation, diminished protein kinaselike ER kinase, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation, prohibited X-box-binding protein 1 splicing and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein expression, caspase 3 activation, and apoptosis caused by supraphysiological cholecystokinin. Conclusion: By incubation with 4-PBA, beneficial in urea cycle deficiency, it was possible to enhance enzyme secretion to suppress trypsin activation, UPR activation, and proapoptotic pathways. The data hint new perspectives for the use of chemical chaperones in pancreatic diseases.