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Reitmeir, Peter; Linkohr, Birgit; Heier, Margit; Molnos, Sophie; Strobl, Ralf; Schulz, Holger; Breier, Michaela; Faus, Theresa; Küster, Dorothea M.; Wulff, Andrea; Grallert, Harald; Grill, Eva; Peters, Annette; Graw, Jochen (2016): Common eye diseases in older adults of southern Germany: results from the KORA-Age study. In: Age and ageing
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PURPOSE: a population-based study in the region of Augsburg (Germany, KORA) was used to identify the prevalence of eye diseases and their risk factors in a sample of aged individuals. METHODS: data originated from the KORA-Age study collected in 2012 and 822 participants (49.6% women, 50.4% men, aged 68-96 years) were asked standardised questions about eye diseases. Positive answers were validated and specified by treating ophthalmologists. Additional information came from laboratory data. Polymorphic markers were tested for candidate genes. RESULTS: we received validations and specifications for 339 participants. The most frequent eye diseases were cataracts (299 cases, 36%), dry eyes (120 cases, 15%), glaucoma (72 cases, 9%) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (68 cases, 8%). Almost all participants suffering from glaucoma or from AMD also had cataracts. Cataract surgery was associated with diabetes (in men; OR = 2.24; 95% confidence interval CI 1.11-4.53; P = 0.025) and smoking (in women; OR = 6.77; CI 1.62-28.35; P = 0.009). In men, treatments in airway diseases was associated with cataracts (glucocorticoids: OR = 5.29, CI 1.20-23.37; P = 0.028; sympathomimetics: OR = 4.57, CI 1.39-15.00; P = 0.012). Polymorphisms in two genes were associated with AMD (ARMS2: OR = 2.28, CI 1.48-3.51; P = 0.005; CFH: OR = 2.03, CI 1.35-3.06; P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: combinations of eye diseases were frequent at old age. The importance of classical risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and airway diseases decreased either due to a survivor bias leaving healthier survivors in the older age group, or due to an increased influence of other up to now unknown risk factors.