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Kunz, C.; Thieringer, F.; Smolka, W.; Wilde, F.; Metzger, M.; Reichert, T.; Buitrago-Telléz, C.; Audigé, L.; Prein, J.; Cornelius, C.-P. (2017): Mittelgesichtsfrakturen nach der AO-CMF-Trauma-Klassifikation. In: Mkg-Chirurg, Vol. 10, No. 2: pp. 82-90
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The working group on osteosynthesis questions (AO) craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma classification for adults is based on a hierarchical algorithm that expands over three precision-levels of increasing complexity and depth of detail in the outline of fracture definitions. In level 1 fractures of the midface including the orbit are simply identified with code number 92. Level 2 enables the location of fractures to be recorded within defined subregions of the central (upper, intermediate and lower) and lateral (zygoma, pterygoid) midface as well as of the orbital frame, the internal orbit and palate. The common zygoma and nasoorbitoethmoidal en bloc fracture patterns as well as the time honored LeFort classification are taken into account. Level 3 brings further precision to fracture assignment by distinction of more topographical divisions of the midface. The subdivisions of the midface are outlined in muchmore detail than presented in level 2. As a key attribute, level 3 enables documentation of the degree of fragmentation, displacement and loss of bone. Moreover, the preinjury dental status and the degree of atrophy of the alveolar process can be recorded and traumatic tooth damage as well as involvement of the alveolar process can be documented.