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Song, Lin; Wang, Weijia; Körstgens, Volker; Gonzalez, Daniel Mosegui; Löhrer, Franziska C.; Schaffer, Christoph J.; Schlipf, Johannes; Peters, Kristina; Bein, Thomas; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Roth, Stephan V.; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter (2017): In situ study of spray deposited titania photoanodes for scalable fabrication of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. In: Nano Energy, Vol. 40: pp. 317-326
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Spray coating, a cost-effective and scalable technique, has been employed for fabricating titania films for solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The spray deposition of films is inherently based on kinetic processes with great complexity, which poses great challenges in its understanding. In the present work, the kinetics of the structure evolution of deposited films are investigated by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering during spray deposition. The spray-solution is prepared via a polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) template assisted sol-gel synthesis. It is turned into nanostructured titania/PS-b-PEO composite films via spray deposition. The information about nanostructure length scales of the composite film is obtained in real-time and in situ, revealing the morphological evolution during the spray deposition. The resulting mesoporous titania films serve as photoanodes of ssDSSCs, which couple with the solution-cast hole transport layer to form the active layers. The well working ssDSSCs demonstrate the successful use of spray deposition as a large-scale manufacturing process for photoanodes.