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Wolf, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Verena S.; Habicht, Antje; Kauke, Teresa; Bucher, Julian; Schönberg, Markus; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Andrassy, Joachim (2018): Effects of mTOR-Is on malignancy and survival following renal transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials with a minimum follow-up of 24 months.
In: PLOS One 13(4), e0194975


Background: mTOR-Is positively influence the occurrence and course of certain tumors after solid organ transplantation. The effect of mTOR-Is on the overall incidence of tumors irrespective of their origin is not entirely clear. Furthermore, conflicting data have been shown on mortality under mTOR-Is. Methods: The current literature was searched for prospective randomized controlled renal transplantation trials. There were 1415 trials screened of which 13 could be included (pts. = 5924). A minimum follow-up of 24 months was mandatory for inclusion. Incidence of malignancies and patient survival was assessed in meta-analyses. Results: The average follow-up of all trials was 40.6 months. Malignancy was significantly reduced under mTOR-Is compared to CNIs (RR 0.70, CI 0.49-0.99, p = 0.046). This effect remained stable when combined with CNIs (RR 0.58, CI 0.34-1.00, p = 0.05). When NMSCs were excluded the risk for malignancy remained significantly reduced under mTOR-I therapy (mono and combi) (RR 0.43, CI 0.24-0.77, p = 0.0046). Graft survival was minimally decreased under mTOR-Is (RR 0.99, CI 0.98-1.00, p = 0.054). This effect was abrogated when mTOR-Is were combined with CNIs (RR 0.99, CI 0.97-1.02, p = 0.50). Patient survival was not different (RR 1.00, CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.54). Conclusions: Posttransplant patients have a lower incidence of malignancy when treated with an mTOR-I no matter if it is used in combination with CNIs or not. This beneficial effect remains significant even when NMSCs are excluded. With currently used mTOR-I-based regimen patient and graft survival is not different compared to CNI therapies.