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Dougherty, John (2020): The Hole Argument, take n. In: Foundations of Physics, Vol. 50, No. 4: pp. 330-347
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I apply homotopy type theory (HoTT) to the hole argument as formulated by Earman and Norton. I argue that HoTT gives a precise sense in which diffeomorphism-related Lorentzian manifolds represent the same spacetime, undermining Earman and Norton's verificationist dilemma and common formulations of the hole argument. However, adopting this account does not alleviate worries about determinism: general relativity formulated on Lorentzian manifolds is indeterministic using this standard of sameness and the natural formalization of determinism in HoTT. Fixing this indeterminism results in a more faithful mathematical representation of general relativity as used by physicists. It also gives a substantive notion of general covariance.