|Ludwig, Sandra and Thoma, Carmen (April 2012): Do Women Have More Shame than Men? An Experiment on Self-Assessment and the Shame of Overestimating Oneself. Discussion Papers in Economics 2012-15|
We analyze how subjects’ self-assessment depends on whether its accuracy is observable to others. We find that women downgrade their selfassessment given observability while men do not. Women avoid the shame they may have if others observe that they overestimated themselves. Men, however, do not seem to be similarly shame-averse. This gender difference may be due to different societal expectations: While we find that men are expected to be overconfident, women are not. Shame-aversion may explain recent findings that women shy away from competition, demanding jobs and wage negotiations, as entering these situations is a statement to be confident of one’s ability.
|Item Type:||Paper (Discussion Paper)|
|Keywords:||Gender, Shame, Self-confidence, Overconfidence, Experiment|
Economics > Discussion Papers in Economics
|Subjects:||300 Social sciences > 330 Economics|
|JEL Classification:||C91, D03, J16|
|Deposited On:||27. Apr 2012 06:22|
|Last Modified:||27. Nov 2013 15:26|
 Altonji, J., and R. Blank (1999), “Race and Gender in the Labor Market,” Ashenfelter, Orley, and David E. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3, Elsevier: 3143–3259.
 Balafoutas, L., and M. Sutter (2012), “Affirmative Action Policies Promote Women and Do Not Harm Efficiency in the Lab,” Science, 335(6068), 579–582.
 Balafoutas, L., R. Kerschbamer, and M. Sutter (forthcoming), “Distributional Preferences and Competitive Behavior,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.
 Benoit, J.-P., and J. Dubra (2011), “Apparent Overconfidence,” Econometrica, 79(5) ,1591-1625.
 Bertrand, M., and K. F. Hallock (2001),“The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55, 3–21.
 Beyer, S. (1990), “Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Self-Evaluations of Performance,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 , 960–970.
 Beyer, S., and E. M. Bowden (1997), “Gender Differences in Self-Perceptions: Convergent Evidence from Three Measures of Accuracy and Bias,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 157–172.
 Bowles, H. R., L. Babcock, and L. Lai, (2007), “Social Incentives for Gender Differences in the Propensity to Initiate Negotiations: Sometimes It Does Hurt to Ask,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103(1), 84–103.
 Bowles, H. R., L. Babcock, and K. L. McGinn, (2005) “Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 951–965.
 Brody, L. R. (1997), “Gender and Emotion: Beyond Stereotypes,” Journal of Social Issues, 53, 369–394.
 Burks, S. V., J. P. Carpenter, L. Goette, and A. Rustichini (2010), “Overconfidence is a Social Signaling Bias,” IZA Discussion Paper 4840.
 Charness, G., A. Rustichini, and J. van de Ven (2011), “Overconfidence, Selfesteem, and Strategic Deterrence,” mimeo.
 Croson, R., and U. Gneezy (2009), “Gender Differences in Preferences,” Journal of Economic Literature, 47(2), 448–474.
 Datta Gupta, N., A. Poulsen, and M. C. Villeval (2011), “Gender Matching and Competitiveness: Experimental Evidence,” Economic Inquiry, forthcoming.
 Dohmen, T., and A. Falk (2011), “Performance Pay and Multi-Dimensional Sorting: Productivity, Preferences and Gender,” American Economic Review, 101(2), 556–590.
 Dohmen, T., A. Falk, D. Huffman, U. Sunde, J. Schupp, and G. Wagner (2005), “Individual Risk Attitudes: New evidence from a Large, Representative, Experimentally Validated Survey,” Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin No. 511, German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin.
 Eagly, A.H. (1987), Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Eckel, C., and P. J. Grossman (2008a), “Differences in the Economic Decisions of Men and Women: Experimental Evidence,” Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Volume 1, Eds. Charles Plott and Vernon Smith, 509–519. New York Elsevier.
 Eckel, C., and P. J. Grossman (2008b), “Men, Women and Risk Aversion: Experimental Evidence,” Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Volume 1, Eds. Charles Plott and Vernon Smith, 1061–73, New York Elsevier.
 Eriksson, T., A. Poulsen, and M. C. Villeval (2009), “Feedback and Incentives: Experimental Evidence,” Labour Economics, 16(6), 679–688.
 Fischbacher, U. (2007), “z-Tree: Zurich Toolbox for Readymade Economic Experiments,” Experimental Economics, 10( 2), 171–178.
 Gerhart, B., and S. Rynes, (1991), “Determinants and Consequences of Salary Negotiations by Male and Female MBA Graduates,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 256–262.
 Goldin, C., and C. Rouse (2000), “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of Blind Auditions on Female Musicians,” American Economic Review, 90(4), 715–741.
 Greiner, B. (2004), “An Online Recruitment System for Economic Experiments,” in Forschung und wissenschaftliches Rechnen 2003, GWDG Bericht 63, ed. Kurt Kremer and Volker Macho. Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung, Göttingen: 79–93.
 Grossman, M., and W. Wood (1993), “Gender Differences in Intensity of Emotional Experience: A Social Role Interpretation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1010–1022.
 Hoelzl, E. and A. Rustichini (2005), “Overconfident: Do You Put Your Money on It?,” Economic Journal, 115, 305–318.
 Holt, C. A. (1986), “Scoring-Rule Procedures for Eliciting Subjective Probability and Utility Functions,” Bayesian Inference and Decision Techniques, P. Goel and A. Zellner (Eds.), 279–290, Amsterdam Elsevier.
 Houser, D., S. Vetter, and J. Winter (2010), “Fairness and Cheating,” mimeo, University of Munich.
 Johansson Stenman, O., and K. Nordblom (2010), “Are Men Really More Overconfident than Women? A Natural Field Experiment on Exam Behavior,” University of Gothenburg Working Papers in Economics 461.
 Klayman, J., J. B. Soll, C. Gonzalez-Vallejo, and S. Barlas (1999), “Overconfidence: It Depends on How, What, and Whom You Ask,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79(3), 216–247.
 M¨obius, M. M., M. Niederle, P. Niehaus, and T. S. Rosenblat (2011), “Managing Self-Confidence: Theory and Experimental Evidence,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W17014
 Niederle, M., C. Segal, and L. Vesterlund (2009), “How Costly Is Diversity? Affirmative Action in Light of Gender Differences in Competitiveness,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 13923.
 Niederle, M., and L. Vesterlund (2007), “Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 1067–1101.
 Niederle, M., and A. H. Yestrumskas (2008), “Gender Differences in Seeking Challenges: The Role of Institutions,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 3922.
 Pulford, B. D., and A.M. Colman (1997), “Overconfidence: Feedback and Item Difficulty Effects. Personality and Individual Differences,” Personality and Individual Differences, 23(1), 125–133.
 Reuben, E., P. Rey-Biel, P. Sapienza, and L. Zingales, “The Emergence of Male Leadership in Competitive Environments,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, forthcoming.
 Rosenberg, M. (1965), Society and the Adolescent Self-Image, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
 Rudman, L.A. (1998), “Self-Promotion as a Risk-Factor for Women: The Costs and Benefits of Counterstereotypical Impression Management,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 629–645.
 Savage, L. J. (1971), “Elicitation of Personal Probabilities and Expectations,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66 (336), 783–801.