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Konrad, Kai A. and Morath, Florian (2012): Evolutionarily stable in-group favoritism and out-group spite in intergroup conflict. In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 306: pp. 61-67
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Abstract

We study conflict between two groups of individuals. Using Schaffer`s (1988) concept of evolutionary stability we provide an evolutionary underpinning for in-group altruism combined with spiteful behavior towards members of the rival out-group. We characterize the set of evolutionarily stable combinations of in-group favoritism and out-group spite and find that an increase in in-group altruism can be balanced by a decrease in spiteful behavior towards the out-group.