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Li, Haoyan; Stocker, Thomas; Bamidis, Elias P.; Sabbagh, Hisham; Baumert, Uwe; Mertmann, Matthias and Wichelhaus, Andrea (2021): Effect of different media on frictional forces between tribological systems made from self-ligating brackets in combination with different stainless steel wire dimensions. In: Dental Materials Journal, Vol. 40, No. 5: pp. 1250-1256

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The purpose was to determine the effect of different environments (artificial saliva, human saliva, distilled water, dry storage) on frictional forces between various tribological systems made from self-ligating brackets in combination with stainless-steel wires (dimensions: 0.016 '' x0.022 '', 0.018 '' x0.025 '' and 0.019 '' x0.025 ''). An universal testing-machine applied a normal force of 1 N. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests (alpha=5%) were used. Saliva had significantly higher frictional forces (p<0.001). Yet, the influence of the media depends on the wire dimensions. The results were not as straightforward as in 0.018 '' x0.025 '', which had a clear order (dry storage<water<artificial saliva<human saliva, p<0.001 each). Except for human saliva, wire dimensions differed significantly from each other (p<0.001). Increasing wire cross-sections increases frictional force. Thus, saliva acts as adhesive. High frictional forces of larger wires are attributed to the contact between latch and wire. Still, in-vitro experiments can only approximate the quasi-static tooth movement and the various fluids in the mouth.

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