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Luo, Sihai; Hoff, Bard H.; Maier, Stefan A. and de Mello, John C. (2021): Scalable Fabrication of Metallic Nanogaps at the Sub-10 nm Level. In: Advanced Science, Vol. 8, No. 24, 2102756

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Metallic nanogaps with metal-metal separations of less than 10 nm have many applications in nanoscale photonics and electronics. However, their fabrication remains a considerable challenge, especially for applications that require patterning of nanoscale features over macroscopic length-scales. Here, some of the most promising techniques for nanogap fabrication are evaluated, covering established technologies such as photolithography, electron-beam lithography (EBL), and focused ion beam (FIB) milling, plus a number of newer methods that use novel electrochemical and mechanical means to effect the patterning. The physical principles behind each method are reviewed and their strengths and limitations for nanogap patterning in terms of resolution, fidelity, speed, ease of implementation, versatility, and scalability to large substrate sizes are discussed.

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