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Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Quilis, V.; Murante, G.; Biffi, V.; Rasia, E.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G. L. and Ragone-Figueroa, C. (2021): Exploring the role of cosmological shock waves in the Dianoga simulations of galaxy clusters. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 507, No. 4: pp. 5703-5719

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Cosmological shock waves are ubiquitous to cosmic structure formation and evolution. As a consequence, they play a major role in the energy distribution and thermalization of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We analyze the Mach number distribution in the Dianoga simulations of galaxy clusters performed with the SPH code gadget-3. The simulations include the effects of radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment, supernova, and active galactic nuclei feedback. A grid-based shock-finding algorithm is applied in post-processing to the outputs of the simulations. This procedure allows us to explore in detail the distribution of shocked cells and their strengths as a function of cluster mass, redshift, and baryonic physics. We also pay special attention to the connection between shock waves and the cool-core/non-cool-core (CC/NCC) state and the global dynamical status of the simulated clusters. In terms of general shock statistics, we obtain a broad agreement with previous works, with weak (low-Mach number) shocks filling most of the volume and processing most of the total thermal energy flux. As a function of cluster mass, we find that massive clusters seem more efficient in thermalizing the IGM and tend to show larger external accretion shocks than less massive systems. We do not find any relevant difference between CC and NCC clusters. However, we find a mild dependence of the radial distribution of the shock Mach number on the cluster dynamical state, with disturbed systems showing stronger shocks than regular ones throughout the cluster volume.

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