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Reiser, Christiane; Klotsche, Jens; Hospach, Anton; Berendes, Rainer; Schnabel, Anja; Jansson, Annette F.; Hufnagel, Markus; Groesch, Nadine; Niewerth, Martina; Minden, Kirsten and Girschick, Hermann (2021): First-year follow-up of children with chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis-an analysis of the German National Pediatric Rheumatologic Database from 2009 to 2018. In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, Vol. 23, No. 1, 281

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Objective To assess the first-year features of patients with chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO). Methods Patients with a diagnosis of CNO, disease duration of under 13 months, and first registration in the German National Pediatric Rheumatologic Database (NPRD) between 2009 and 2018 were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Results Of 774 documented patients, 62.8% were female, and all patients had a median age of 11 years. The most affected clinical sites were the tibia (29.7%), pelvis (28.0%), and femur (27.8%). HLA-B27 was positive in 48 of 314 analyzed patients (15.3%). In 406 patients, an X-ray was performed at the first visit;X-ray results showed osteosclerosis/-lysis in 34.0% and hyperostosis in 14.5% of the patients. MRI scans (focal and whole-body scans) were performed in 648 patients, and 81.5% showed a positive TIRM/STIR signal. A total of 84.7% of the patients were administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 9.6% were administered oral glucocorticoids, 10.8% were administered disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and 6.1% were administered bisphosphonates. An evaluation of the patient's questionnaire showed an overall well-being (NRS 0-10) of 2.0. The PedCNO disease activity score revealed a 70% improvement in variables in 43% of patients in the initial 1-year follow-up. Copresentation with diagnostic criteria of pediatric enthesitis-related arthritis was rare. Conclusion To our knowledge, the NPRD cohort seemed to be the largest cohort of children and adolescents suffering from CNO worldwide. Most patients were treated effectively with NSAIDs, and only a small group of patients was administered additional medication. The patient-defined measures of disease activity had a moderate impact on patients' daily lives.

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