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Tutz, Gerhard (2021): Uncertain Choices: The Heterogeneous Multinomial Logit Model. In: Sociological Methodology, Vol 51, Vol. 51, No. 1: pp. 86-111

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In this article, a modeling strategy is proposed that accounts for heterogeneity in nominal responses that is typically ignored when using common multinomial logit models. Heterogeneity can arise from unobserved variance heterogeneity, but it may also represent uncertainty in choosing from alternatives or, more generally, result from varying coefficients determined by effect modifiers. It is demonstrated that the bias in parameter estimation in multinomial logit models can be substantial if heterogeneity is present but ignored. The modeling strategy avoids biased estimates and allows researchers to investigate which variables determine uncertainty in choice behavior. Several applications demonstrate the usefulness of the model.

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