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Zarogoulidis, Paul; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Huang, Haidong; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiangqi; Xia, Ying; Ding, Yinfeng; Bai, Chong; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Sapalidis, Konstantinos; Sardeli, Chrysanthi; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zaric, Bojan; Kovacevic, Tomi; Stojsic, Vladimir; Sarcev, Tatjana; Bursac, Daliborka; Kukic, Biljana; Baka, Sofia; Athanasiou, Evagelia; Hatzibougias, Dimitrios; Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou, Electra; Petanidis, Savvas; Drougas, Dimitris; Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Paliouras, Dimitris; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Vagionas, Anastasios; Freitag, Lutz; Lallas, Aimilios; Boukovinas, Ioannis; Petridis, Dimitris; Ioannidis, Aris; Matthaios, Dimitris; Romanidis, Konstantinos and Karapantzou, Chrisanthi (2021): Intratumoral Treatment with Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for NSCLC with EBUS-TBNA 19G. In: Journal of Cancer, Vol. 12, No. 9: pp. 2560-2569

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Introduction: Immunotherapy is being used for the past five years either as first line or second line treatment with great results. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been also used as combination to immunotherapy to further enhance this type of treatment. Intratumoral treatment has been previously proposed as a treatment option for certain non-small cell lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We recruited in total seventy four patients with non-small cell lung cancer in their second line treatment who received only chemotherapy in their first line treatment with programmed death-ligand-1 50. Only adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, and all negative for epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase-1 and proto-oncogene B-Raf. Data were first examined with descriptive statistics choosing frequencies for categorical variables and histograms for the continuous ones. Twenty five received only intravenous immunotherapy and forty-nine intravenous cisplatin with immunotherapy. Data were first examined with descriptive statistics choosing frequencies for categorical variables and histograms for the continuous ones. Results: The relationships between changes of performance status and disease progression were examined via a single correspondence analysis. The two-dimensional scores (coordinates) derived from the correspondence analysis were then regressed against the predictors to form distinct splits and nodes obtaining quantitative results. The best fit is usually achieved by lowering exhaustively the AICc criterion and looking in parallel the change of R-2 expecting improvements more than 5%. both types of therapy are capable of producing best ameliorative effects, when either the programmed death-ligand-1 expression or parenchymal site in joint with low pack years are present in the sampling data. Conclusions: Intratumoral treatment combination with cisplatin plus immunotherapy indifferent of nivolumab or pembrolizumab combination is an effective choice. In specific for those with endobronchial lesions. Moreover;patients with programmed death-ligand-1 >= 50 had their performance status and disease progression improved over the eight month observation.

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