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Sabbagh, Hisham; Bamidis, Elias P. P.; Keller, Alexander; Stocker, Thomas; Baumert, Uwe; Hoffmann, Lea and Wichelhaus, Andrea (2022): Force behaviour of elastic chains during a simulated gap closure in extraction therapy cases. In: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, Vol. 26, No. 3: pp. 433-441 [PDF, 1MB]


Objective: Tooth movement with elastic chains requires defined force magnitudes. This study assessed the force behaviour of different elastic chains at different configurations of gap width. Methods: Self-ligating brackets of teeth 5 & 6 and 2 & 3 were bonded to two movable aluminium plates. The plates were positioned on a joint basis with varying distances of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mm. Reset forces of open and closed chains from four different manufacturers were investigated in four different configurations. Configurations differed in either having an additional intermediate ring within the gap (#1, #3) and/or having intermediate rings between teeth adjacent to the gap (#1, #2), or by no intermediate rings (#4). Forces were measured with a universal testing machine. The results were statistically analysed using U-test, H-test and (if applicable) post-hoc tests with a significance level of .05. Results: Configurations #1 and #3, and #2 and #4 formed homogenous subgroups (P < .001). Initial forces in configuration #4 were significantly higher than in configuration #3 (P = .029). Initial forces in closed chains were significantly higher than for open chains (P = .029). Conclusions: Intermediate chain rings adjacent to the gap are not required to modulate the force. In contrast, leaving a ring unapplied in the tooth gap can help modulate the force. Open thermoset chains with an additional ring within the gap (#3) seem to produce suitable initial forces for a gap closure of 4 mm. With a residual gap width of < 2 mm, open thermoset chains and closed thermoset chains (#4) seem suitable.

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