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Cano-Ortiz, Lucia; Gu, Qinyong; de Sousa-Pereira, Patricia; Zhang, Zeli; Chiapella, Catherina; Twizerimana, Augustin Penda; Lin, Chaohui; Franco, Ana Claudia; VandeWoude, Sue; Luedde, Tom; Baldauf, Hanna-Mari and Muenk, Carsten (2022): Feline Leukemia Virus-B Envelope Together With its GlycoGag and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Nef Mediate Resistance to Feline SERINC5. In: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 434, No. 6, 167421

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Human SERINC5 (SER5) protein is a recently described restriction factor against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), which is antagonized by HIV-1 Nef protein. Other retroviral accessory proteins such as the glycosylated Gag (glycoGag) from the murine leukemia virus (MLV) can also antagonize SER5. In addition, some viruses escape SER5 restriction by expressing a SER5-insensitive envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Here, we studied the activity of human and feline SER5 on HIV-1 and on the two pathogenic retroviruses in cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV). HIV-1 in absence of Nef is restricted by SER5 from domestic cats and protected by its Nef protein. The sensitivity of feline retroviruses FIV and FeLV to human and feline SER5 is considerably different: FIV is sensitive to feline and human SER5 and lacks an obvious mechanism to counteract SER5 activity, while FeLV is relatively resistant to SER5 inhibition. We speculated that similar to MLV, FeLV-A or FeLV-B express glycoGag proteins and investigated their function against human and feline SER5 in wild type and envelope deficient virus variants. We found that the endogenous FeLV recombinant virus, FeLV-B but not wild type exogenous FeLV-A envelope mediates a strong resistance against human and feline SER5. GlycoGag has an additional but moderate role to enhance viral infectivity in the presence of SER5 that seems to be dependent on the FeLV envelope. These findings may explain, why in vivo FeLV-B has a selective advantage and causes higher FeLV levels in infected cats compared to infections of FeLV-A only. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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