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Pollock, YaoYao; Smith, Matthew R.; Saad, Fred; Chowdhury, Simon; Oudard, Stephane; Hadaschik, Boris; Olmos, David; Lee, Ji Youl; Uemura, Hiroji; Bhaumik, Amitabha; Londhe, Anil; Rooney, Brendan; Brookman-May, Sabine D.; De Porre, Peter; Mundle, Suneel D. and Small, Eric J. (2022): Clinical characteristics associated with falls in patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with apalutamide. In: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, Vol. 26, No. 1: pp. 156-161

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Abstract

Background The phase III SPARTAN study demonstrated that apalutamide significantly improves metastasis-free survival and overall survival vs. placebo in patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). However, patients receiving apalutamide experienced falls more frequently vs. those receiving placebo (15.6% vs. 9.0%). Methods 806 patients with nmCRPC randomized to apalutamide in SPARTAN and treated with apalutamide in addition to ongoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were included in this post-hoc analysis investigating clinical variables associated with a subsequent fall. Time to a fall was assessed with Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for baseline characteristics and time-varying factors. Statistical inference was based on final multivariable models. Results Falls were reported for 125/803 (15.6%) patients treated with apalutamide and ADT. Most falls were grade 1 or 2 and did not require hospitalization. Median time from randomization to first fall was 9.2 months (range 0.1-25.3 months). In the final multivariable model of both baseline and after-baseline covariates, baseline patient characteristics (older age, poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, history of neuropathy, and alpha-blocker use before study treatment) remained significantly associated with fall;after-baseline clinical characteristics significantly associated with time to fall were development of neuropathy, arthralgia, and weight loss before fall. Conclusions This analysis identified risk factors for fall among nmCRPC patients treated with apalutamide. Clinical management can minimize these identified risks while enhancing patient outcomes. Preventive interventions should be considered when the identified baseline conditions and post-treatment neuropathy, arthralgia, or weight decrease are present, to reduce risk of fall.

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