Logo Logo
Switch Language to German

Eddicks, Matthias; Gründl, Julia; Seifert, Annika; Eddicks, Lina; Reese, Sven ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4605-9791; Tabeling, Robert; Swam, Hanny; Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Ritzmann, Mathias and Fux, Robert (27. June 2023): Examination on the Occurrence of Coinfections in Diagnostic Transmittals in Cases of Stillbirth, Mummification, Embryonic Death, and Infertility (SMEDI) Syndrome in Germany. In: Microorganisms, Vol. 11, No. 7, 1675 [PDF, 4MB]

[thumbnail of microorganisms-11-01675-v2.pdf]
Creative Commons Attribution
Published Version
Download (4MB)


The stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, and infertility (SMEDI) syndrome is most commonly associated with porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) infections. Little is known about the occurrence of coinfections with SMEDI-associated pathogens and the associations among these pathogens. In our study, we included 40 SMEDI-affected litters from 18 different farms. In total, 158 out of 358 available fetuses from diagnostic transmittals were selected by systematic random sampling and examined for PCV2, PCV3, PPV1, and Leptospira spp. by q-PCR. Results from diagnostic materials showed the following results: in eleven farms, PCV2 was present; in nine farms, PPV1 was present; in five farms, PCV3 was present; and in two farms, Leptospira spp. was present. The detection of Leptospira spp. was significantly associated with a PCV2 coinfection (OR: 26.3; p < 0.001). PCV3 positivity resulted in a reduced probability of detecting PCV2 in the corresponding fetus (OR: 0.078; p = 0.008). Fetal maceration was associated with Leptospira spp. detection (OR: 8.6; p = 0.003), whereas mummification (p = 0.047), reduced crown-rump length (p < 0.001), and bodyweight (p = 0.001) of fetuses were significantly associated with PPV1 and PCV2 coinfection and thus, presumably, a shorter time to death after infection, indicating an enhanced negative effect on the development of fetuses with PCV2 + PPV1 coinfection.

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item