Zahler, Stefan; Becker, Bernhard F.; Raschke, P.; Gerlach, E.
Stimulation of endothelial adenosine Al receptors enhances adhesion of neutrophils in the intact guinea pig coronary system.
In: Cardiovascular research, Vol. 28, No. 9: pp. 1366-1372
Objective: The primary aim was to determine the action of pathophysiologically relevant adenosine concentrations (0.1-1 μM) on adhesion of neutrophils to coronary endothelium. Further aims were to evaluate the nature and localisation of the adenosine receptor involved. and to assess the effect of endogenous adenosine.
Methods: Adhesion was studied in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts by determining the number of cells emerging in the coronary effluent after intracoronary bolus injections of 600 000 neutrophils prepared from guinea pig or human blood. The system was characterised by the use of the proadhesive stimulus thrombin.
Results: A 5 rnin infusion of adenosine (0.1-0.3 μM) or the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 μM) significantly increased adhesion from about 20% (control) to 30%. This effect was prevented by the A1 receptor antagonist dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX. 0.1 μM). It was not diminished by cessation of adenosine infusion 90 s prior to neutrophil injection. At a higher concentration of adenosine (1 μM), adhesion did not seem to be enhanced. However, coinfusion of the A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX. 0.1 μM) with 1 μM adenosine unmasked the A1 action, adhesion rising to 39%. Adenosine had a quantitatively identical effect on adhesion of human neutrophils. Total ischaemia of 15 min duration raised adhesion of subsequently applied neutrophils to 35%. This effect was completely blocked by DPCPX, as well as by ischaemic preconditioning (3 X 3 min). Preconditioning raised initial postischaemic coronary effluent adenosine from about 0.8 μM to 1.5 μM.
Conclusions: The findings suggest a bimodal participation of adenosine in the development of postischaemic dysfunction by an endothelium dependent modulation of neutrophil adhesion. Stimulation occurs via endothelial A1 receptors at submicromolar adenosine levels, whereas cardioprotection by adenosine may in part relate to the use of pharmacologically high concentrations of adenosine or enhanced endogenous production after preconditioning.