Lotsch, Bettina V.; Schnick, Wolfgang; Naumann, Ernst; Senker, Jürgen
Reorientational Dynamics and Solid-Phase Transformation of Ammonium Dicyanamide into Dicyandiamide. A 2H Solid-State NMR Study.
In: The journal of physical chemistry B, Vol. 111, No. 40: pp. 11680-11691
The reorientational dynamics of ammonium dicyanamide ND4[N(C≡N)2] and the kinetics as well as the mechanism of the solid-state isomerization reaction from ammonium dicyanamide into dicyandiamide (N≡C-N=C(NH2)2) was studied by means of 2H and 14N solid-state NMR spectroscopy in a temperature range between 38 and 390 K. Whereas in previous investigations the mechanism of the solid-state transformation was investigated by means of vibrational and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as neutron diffraction, we here present a comprehensive 2H study of the ammonium ion dynamics prior to and during the course of the reaction, thereby highlighting possible cross correlations between dynamics and reactivity involving the ammonium ion. The ND4+ group was found to undergo thermally activated random jumps in a tetrahedral potential, which is increasingly distorted with increasing temperature, giving rise to an asymmetrically compressed or elongated tetrahedron with deviations from the tetrahedral angle of up to 6°. The correlation time follows an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of Ea = 25.8(2) kJ mol-1 and an attempt frequency of τ0-1 = 440(80) THz. The spin−lattice relaxation times were fitted according to a simple Bloembergen−Purcell−Pound type model with a T1 minimum of 4 ms at 230 K. Temperature-dependent librational amplitudes were extracted by line-shape simulations between 38 and 390 K and contrasted with those obtained by neutron diffraction, their values ranging between 5 and 28°. The onset and progress of the solid-phase transformation were followed in situ at temperatures above 372 K and could be classified as a strongly temperature-dependent, heterogeneous two-step reaction proceeding with rapid evolution of ammonia and comparatively slow subsequent reintegration into the solid. On the microscopic level, this correlates with a rapid proton transferpossibly triggered by a coupling between the ammonium ion dynamics and phonon modes on the terahertz time scaleand an essentially decoupled nucleophilic attack of ammonia at the nitrile carbon, giving rise to significantly differing time constants for the two processes.