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Rieber, Nikolaus; Graf, Anna; Hartl, Dominik; Urschel, Simon; Belohradsky, Bernd H.; Liese, Johannes (2011): Acellular pertussis booster in adolescents induces Th1 and memory CD8+ T cell immune response.
In: PloS one 8(3), e17271
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Abstract

In a number of countries, whole cell pertussis vaccines (wcP) were replaced by acellular vaccines (aP) due to an improved reactogenicity profile. Pertussis immunization leads to specific antibody production with the help of CD4(+) T cells. In earlier studies in infants and young children, wcP vaccines selectively induced a Th1 dominated immune response, whereas aP vaccines led to a Th2 biased response. To obtain data on Th1 or Th2 dominance of the immune response in adolescents receiving an aP booster immunization after a wcP or aP primary immunization, we analyzed the concentration of Th1 (IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) cytokines in supernatants of lymphocyte cultures specifically stimulated with pertussis antigens. We also investigated the presence of cytotoxic T cell responses against the facultative intracellular bacterium Bordetella pertussis by quantifying pertussis-specific CD8(+) T cell activation following the aP booster immunization. Here we show that the adolescent aP booster vaccination predominantly leads to a Th1 immune response based on IFNgamma secretion upon stimulation with pertussis antigen, irrespective of a prior whole cell or acellular primary vaccination. The vaccination also induces an increase in peripheral CD8(+)CD69(+) activated pertussis-specific memory T cells four weeks after vaccination. The Th1 bias of this immune response could play a role for the decreased local reactogenicity of this adolescent aP booster immunization when compared to the preceding childhood acellular pertussis booster. Pertussis-specific CD8(+) memory T cells may contribute to protection against clinical pertussis.