Djafarzadeh, Roghieh; Sauter, Matthias; Notohamiprodjo, Susan; Noessner, Elfriede; Goyal, Pankaj; Siess, Wolfgang; Wörnle, Markus; Ribeiro, Andrea; Himmelein, Susanne; Sitter, Thomas; Nelson, Peter J.
Recombinant GPI-anchored TIMP-1 stimulates growth and migration of peritoneal mesothelial cells.
In: PloS one
Mesothelial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of post-surgical intraabdominal adhesions as well as in the deterioration of the peritoneal membrane associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis. Mesothelial denudation is a pathophysiolocigally important finding in these processes. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) biology underlies aspects of mesothelial homeostasis as well as wound repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) moderate MMP activity. METHODS AND FINDING: By modifying human TIMP-1 through the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, a recombinant protein was generated that efficiently focuses TIMP-1 on the cell surface. Treatment of primary mesothelial cells with TIMP-1-GPI facilitates their mobilization and migration leading to a dramatic increase in the rate of wound experimental closure. Mesothelial cells treated with TIMP-1-GPI showed a dose dependent increase in cell proliferation, reduced secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, TNF-α and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), but increased tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Treatment resulted in reduced expression and processing of latent TGF-β1. TIMP-1-GPI stimulated rapid and efficient in vitro wound closure. The agent enhanced mesothelial cell proliferation and migration and was bioactive in the nanogram range. The application of TIMP-1-GPI may represent a new approach for limiting or repairing damaged mesothelium.