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Hoppe, B.; Häupl, T.; Egerer, K.; Gruber, R.; Kiesewetter, H.; Salama, A.; Burmester, G.R.; Dörner, T. (2009): Influence of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 genotype and shared epitope on clinical characteristics and autoantibody profile of rheumatoid arthritis. In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol. 68: pp. 898-903




Background: Recent evidence suggests that distinction of subsets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) depending on anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) status may be helpful in distinguishing distinct aetiopathologies and in predicting the course of disease. HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) and peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) genotype, both of which have been implicated in anti-CCP generation, are assumed to be associated with RA. Objectives: To elucidate whether PADI4 affects the clinical characteristics of RA, and whether it would modulate the effect of anti-CCPs on clinical course. The combined effect of SE and PADI4 on autoantibody profile was also analysed. Methods: 373 patients with RA were studied. SE, padi4_94C.T, rheumatoid factor, anti-CCPs and antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined. Disease severity was characterised by cumulative therapy intensity classified into ordinal categories (CTI-1 to CTI-3) and by Steinbrocker score. Results: CTI was significantly associated with disease duration, erosive disease, disease activity score (DAS) 28 and anti-CCPs. The association of anti-CCPs with CTI was considerably influenced by padi4_94C.T genotype (C/C: ORadj=0.93, padj=0.92; C/T: ORadj=2.92, padj=0.093; T/T: ORadj=15.3, padj=0.002). Carriage of padi4_94T exhibited a significant trend towards higher Steinbrocker scores in univariate and multivariate analyses. An association of padi4_94C.T with ANAs was observed, with noteworthy differences depending on SE status (SE2: ORadj=6.20, padj,0.04; SE+: ORadj=0.36, padj=0.02) and significant heterogeneity between the two SE strata (p=0.006). Conclusions: PADI4 genotype in combination with anti- CCPs and SE modulates clinical and serological characteristics of RA.