Schumacher, Johannes; Hoffmann, Per; Schmäl, Christine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Nöthen, Markus M.
Genetics of dyslexia: the evolving landscape.
In: Journal of Medical Genetics, Vol. 44: pp. 289-297
Dyslexia is among the most common neurodevelopmental
disorders, with a prevalence of 5–12%. At the phenotypic level,
various cognitive components that enable reading and spelling
and that are disturbed in affected individuals can be
distinguished. Depending on the phenotype dimension
investigated, inherited factors are estimated to account for up to
80%. Linkage findings in dyslexia are relatively consistent
across studies in comparison to findings for other
neuropsychiatric disorders. This is particularly true for
chromosome regions 1p34–p36, 6p21–p22, 15q21 and
18q11. Four candidate genes have recently been identified
through systematic linkage disequilibrium studies in linkage
region 6p21–p22, and through cloning approaches at
chromosomal breakpoints. Results indicate that a disturbance in
neuronal migration is a pathological correlate of dyslexia at the
functional level. This review presents a summary of the latest
insights into the genetics of dyslexia and an overview of
anticipated future developments.