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Wolf, Dieter A.; Schulz, Peter and Fittler, Friedrich (1992): Transcriptional regulation of prostate kallikrein-like genes by androgen. In: Molecular Endocrinology, Vol. 6, No. 5: pp. 753-762 [PDF, 2MB]

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Using gene-specific synthetic oligonucleotides the expression and regulation of kallikrein-like genes in the human prostatic cancer cell line LNCaP were studied. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein (hGK-1) together constitute a subfamily of serine proteases exclusively produced in the human prostate. RNA analysis revealed that both genes are expressed in LNCaP cells with PSA basal levels being 2-fold higher than hGK-1 levels. Both mRNAs are induced over a period of 24 h in the presence of 3.3 nM of the synthetic androgen mibolerone. Stimulation of PSA RNA is about 5- fold,whereas hGK-1 stimulation is less pronounced. Nuclear run-on analysis revealed that androgen induction of kallikrein-like genes in LNCaP cells is a rapid event (c3 h) occurring at the level of transcription initiation. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide demonstrates that, while PSA/hGK-1 basal transcription strictly depends on continuous protein synthesis, transcriptional induction by androgen does not. This suggests the direct involvement of the androgen receptor in the induction process independent of additional labile protein factors necessary for kallikrein basal transcription. A binding motif is present in the PSA and hGK-1 promoters, closely resembling the consensus sequence for steroidresponsive elements. The androgen antagonist cyproterone acetate was also able to stimulate transcription of kallikrein-like genes in LNCaP cells. In contrast, androgen-dependent transcriptional suppression of the protooncogene c-myc was strongly counteracted by cyproterone acetate. Thus, antiandrogens act differentially on androgen-regulated prostate-specific (PSA, hGK-1) and growthrelated (c-myc) gene expression in LNCaP cells.

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