Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Höltje, M.; Korting, Hans Christian; Höltje, H.-D.
Innovative Agents for Actinic Keratosis and Nanocarriers Enhancing Skin Penetration.
In: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, No. 1: pp. 6-14
Actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma are of increasing importance with aging and increased ultraviolet light exposure in Western societies. Efficient and well-tolerated therapy is still a matter of concern. As with tumours of other organs, new target sites and innovative drugs selectively addressing them are widely looked for. Due to the relevance for DNA synthesis and thus cell proliferation, human DNA polymerase alpha should be such a target, the more so as the three-dimensional structure of the active site has been proposed based on the application of molecular modelling methods and molecular dynamics simulations. The modelled structure of the active site was used for docking nucleotide analogues in order to design selective inhibitors. Consequently, well-fitting thymidine and guanosine analogues were synthesized and tested in vitro for their influence on normal and transformed human keratinocytes. In fact, the combination of modelling studies and in vitro tests allowed us to design antiproliferative and cytotoxic agents which are new drug candidates for the therapy of skin tumours, given the agents are no relevant substrates of nucleotide transporters (MRP-4, MRP-5) expressed by skin cancer cells. Essential kinases for nucleoside activation were detected, too, corresponding with the observed effects of nucleoside analogues. Due to the rather high molecular weight and poor solubility, however, skin penetration should be poor and thus topical therapy may require carriers to improve the uptake. This becomes feasible by lipidic and non-lipidic nanoparticles which can enhance the uptake of lipophilic agents up to 13-fold. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel