Hentrich, Marcus; Jäger, H.; Hartenstein, R.
In: Onkologie, Nr. 3: S. 240-244
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin's lymphma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer are considered AIDS-defining malignancies. The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has recently been increased as a secondary manifestation of AIDS. The pathogenesis is not completely understood. Human herpesvirus 8 could be identified as an infectious cofactor. Therapeutic strategies should be based on prognostic factors and tailored to the patient's individual situation. Local treatments widely used are cryotherapy or radiotherapy. Systemic therapies such as interferon-alpha. or single and multiagent chemotherapy are also well established. Based on their high response rates and favorable toxicity profile, liposome-encapsulated anthracyclines may be considered first-line therapy for advanced AIDS-related KS. HIV-associated NHL may increase in frequency as HIV-infected individuals survive longer with improved antiretroviral therapy. There is no advantage for intensive as compared with standard or less intensive chemotherapeutic regimens of the CHOP type. Complete remissions can be achieved in approximately 50% of the patients, but the recurrence rate is high. The therapeutic strategy should include an optimal supportive care and antiretroviral treatment because chemotherapy significantly increases the risk of opportunistic infection. In urban populations at risk, cervical cancer is a common AIDS-related malignancy in women. Patients with cervical carcinoma usually have a more aggressive and more advanced disease. Various malignant diseases, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, anal cancer or seminoma in patients with AIDS occur at higher frequency in HIV infection.