Habler, Oliver; Kleen, Martin; Kemming, Gregor; Zwissler, Bernhard
Hyperoxia in extreme hemodilution.
In: European Surgical Research, No. 1-2: pp. 181-187
Intraoperative surgical blood loss is initially replaced by infusion of red cell-free, cristalloidal or colloidal solutions. When normovolemia is maintained the ensuing dilutional anemia is compensated by an increase of cardiac output and of arterial oxygen extraction. In the ideal case, a surgical blood loss can entirely be `bridged' without transfusion by intraciperative normovolemic hemodilution. However major blood loss results in extreme hemodilution and the transfusion of red blood cells may finally become necessary to increase arterial oxygen content and to preserve tissue oxygenation. When transfusion has to be started before surgical control of bleeding has been achieved, parts of the red blood cells transfused will get lost, thereby increasing intraoperative transfusion needs. Beside red blood cell transfusion, arterial oxygen content can be rapidly increased by ventilating the patient with 100% oxygen (hyperoxic ventilation), thus enhancing the amount of physically dissolved oxygen in plasma (hyperoxia). In experimental and clinical studies hyperoxic ventilation has emerged as a simple, safe and effective intervention to enlarge the margin of safety for hemodynamic compensation and tissue oxygenation in hemodiluted subjects experiencing major bleeding. The hyperoxia-associated microcirculatory dysregulation and impaired tissue oxygenation known to take place in the presence of a physiologic hemoglobin concentration are not encountered in hemodiluted subjects. Hyperoxic hemodilution i.e. the combination of intraoperative extreme hemodilution and hyperoxic ventilation may therefore be considered a cost-effective, safe and efficient supplement to reduce allogeneic transfusion during surgical interventions associated with high blood losses. The vast majority of the experimental and clinical investigations this new concept is based on was initiated and performed under the guidance of Prof. Konrad Messmer. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.