Fischer, Niko; Hüll, Katharina; Klapötke, Thomas M.; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Laus, Gerhard; Hummel, Michael; Froschauer, Carmen; Wurst, Klaus; Schottenberger, Herwig (2012): 5,5'-Azoxytetrazolates - a new nitrogen-rich dianion and its comparison to 5,5'-azotetrazolate. In: Dalton Transactions, Vol. 41, Nr. 36: S. 11201-11211




A modification of the synthesis of sodium 5,5'-azotetrazolate pentahydrate, described by Thiele in 1898, yields the unknown and unexpected corresponding 5N-oxido derivative sodium 5,5'-azoxybistetrazolate pentahydrate (Na(2)zTO center dot 5H(2)O, 1). Purification was achieved by recrystallization based on the better solubility of Na(2)zTO center dot 5H(2)O in water. Different nitrogen-rich salts, such as the diammonium (3), the dihydroxylammonium (4), the bis-diaminoguanidinium (5), the bis-triaminoguanidinium (6) and the diaminouronium salt (7), have been prepared using metathesis reactions starting from barium 5,5'azoxybistetrazolate pentahydrate (2) and ammonium, hydroxylammonium, diaminoguanidinium or diaminouronium sulfate and triaminoguanidinium chloride, respectively. The nitrogen rich azoxyderivatives 3-7 were characterized using NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Additionally the solid state structures of 3, 4, 5 and 7 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The heats of formation of 3 and 4 and their corresponding azo-tetrazolate derivatives were calculated by the atomization method based on CBS-4M enthalpies. With these values and the crystal densities, several detonation parameters such as the detonation velocity, detonation pressure and specific impulse were calculated (EXPLO5) and compared. The sensitivities towards shock (BAM drophammer), friction (BAM friction tester) and electrostatic discharge of the described compounds were determined.