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Wößmann, Ludger (2003): Schooling resources, educational institutions and student performance: The international evidence. In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 65, No. 2: pp. 117-170
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This paper estimates the effects of family background, resources and institutions on mathematics and science performance using an international database of more than 260,000 students from 39 countries which includes extensive background information at the student, teacher, school and system level. The student-level estimations show that international differences in student performance cannot be attributed to resource differences but are considerably related to institutional differences. Among the many institutions which combine to yield major positive effects on student performance are centralized examinations and control mechanisms, school autonomy in personnel and process decisions, individual teacher influence over teaching methods, limits to teacher unions’ influence on curriculum scope, scrutiny of students’ achievement and competition from private schools.