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Hanushek, Eric A.; Wößmann, Ludger (2006): Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality? differences-in-differences evidence across countries. In: Economic Journal, Vol. 116, No. 510: C63-C76

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Even though some countries track students into differing-ability schools by age 10, others keep their entire secondary-school system comprehensive. To estimate the effects of such institutional differences in the face of country heterogeneity, we employ an international differences-in-differences approach. We identify tracking effects by comparing differences in outcome between and secondary school across tracked and non-tracked systems. Six international student assessments provide eight pairs of achievement contrasts for between 18 and 26 cross-country comparisons. The results suggest that early tracking increases educational inequality. While less clear, there is also a tendency for early tracking to reduce mean performance.

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