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Adam, Tim R. and Streitz, Daniel (2014): Hold-Up and the Use of Performance-Sensitive Debt. SFB/TR 15 Discussion Paper No. 476 [PDF, 884kB]


We examine whether performance-sensitive debt (PSD) is used to reduce hold-up problems in long-term lending relationships. We find that the use of PSD is more common in the presence of a long-term lending relationship and if the borrower has fewer financing alternatives available. In syndicated deals, however, the presence of a relationship lead arranger reduces the use of PSD, which is consistent with hold-up being of lesser concern in such cases. Further, supporting our hypothesis that hold-up concerns motivate the use of PSD, we find a substitution effect between the use of PSD and the tightness of financial covenants.

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