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Koletzko, Berthold; Bauer, C. P.; Bung, P.; Cremer, M.; Flothkötter, M.; Hellmers, C.; Kersting, M.; Krawinkel, M.; Przyrembel, H.; Rasenack, R.; Schäfer, T.; Vetter, K.; Wahn, U.; Weissenborn, A.; Wöckel, A. (2013): German National Consensus Recommendations on Nutrition and Lifestyle in Pregnancy by the ‘Healthy Start - Young Family Network’. In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 63, Nr. 4: S. 311-322


Diet and physical activity before and during pregnancy affect short- andlong-term health of mother and child. The energy needs at the end ofpregnancy increase only by about 10% compared to nonpregnant women. Anexcessive energy intake is undesirable since maternal overweight andexcessive weight gain can increase the risks for a high birth weight andlater child overweight and diabetes. Maternal weight at the beginning ofpregnancy is especially important for pregnancy outcome and childhealth. Women should strive to achieve normal weight already beforepregnancy. Regular physical activity can contribute to a healthy weightand to the health of pregnant women. The need for certain nutrientsincreases more than energy requirements. Before and during pregnancy,foods with a high content of essential nutrients should bepreferentially selected. Supplements should include folic acid andiodine, iron (in case of suboptimal iron stores), the omega-3 fatty aciddocosahexaenoic acid (in case of infrequent consumption of ocean fish)and vitamin D (in case of decreased sun exposure and decreasedendogenous vitamin D synthesis). Pregnant women should not smoke and notstay in rooms where others smoke or have smoked before (passivesmoking). Alcohol consumption should be avoided, since alcohol can harmunborn children.