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Konrad, Kai A. (2004): Altruism and envy in contests: An evolutionarily stable symbiosis. In: Social Choice and Welfare, Vol. 22, No. 3: pp. 479-490
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Altruists and envious people who meet in contests are symbionts. They do better than a population of narrowly rational individuals. If there are only altruists and envious individuals, a particular mixture of altruists and envious individuals is evolutionarily stable.