Schönberger, Katharina; Riedel, Christina; Rückinger, Simon; Mansmann, Ulrich; Jilg, Wolfgang; Kries, Rüdiger von
Determinants of Long-term Protection After Hepatitis B Vaccination in Infancy: A Meta-analysis.
In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 32, Nr. 4: S. 307-313
Background: The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination in early infancy is unclear and may be related to vaccination schedule, dosage, vaccine type and population characteristics. Factors potentially influencing waning immunity were assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed. The main outcomes were prevalence of anti-hepatits B antibodies >= 10 mIU/mL after primary or booster vaccination. Factors potentially influencing protection were assessed in an adjusted random-effects meta-analysis model by age for both outcomes. Results of both meta-analyses were combined in a prognostic model. Results: Forty-six studies reporting on the anti-hepatits B antibodies >= 10 mIU/mL 5 to 20 years after primary immunization and 29 on booster response were identified. The adjusted meta-analyses identified maternal carrier status (odds ratio OR]: 2.37 1.11; 5.08]), lower vaccine dosage than presently recommended (OR: 0.14 0.06; 0.30]) and gap time between last and preceding dose of the primary vaccine series (OR: 0.44 0.22; 0.86]) as determinants for persistence of anti-hepatits B antibodies >= 10. A lower vaccine dosage was also associated with failure to respond to booster (OR: 0.20 0.10; 0.38]). The prognostic model predicted long-term protection of 90% 77%; 100%] at the age of 17 years for offspring of noncarrier mothers vaccinated with a presently recommended dose and vaccination schedule. Conclusions: Based on meta-analyses, predictors of waning immunity after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy could be identified. A prognostic model for long-term protection after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy was developed.