Smeets, Esther; Meiler, Svenja; Lutgens, Esther
Lymphocytic tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily co-stimulatory molecules in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
In: Current Opinion in Lipidology, Vol. 24, No. 6: pp. 518-524
Purpose of reviewThe role of lymphocytes in the chronic inflammatory disease atherosclerosis has emerged over the past decade. Co-stimulatory molecules of the heterogeneous tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily play a pivotal role in lymphocyte activation, proliferation and differentiation. Here we describe the immune modulatory properties and mechanisms of four tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily members in atherosclerosis.Recent findingsCD40/CD40L, OX40L/OX40, CD70/CD27 and CD137/CD137L are present in human atherosclerotic plaques and have shown strong immune modulatory functions in atherosclerosis, resulting in either atherogenic or atheroprotective effects in mouse models of atherosclerosis.SummaryInsight into the immune modulatory mechanisms of co-stimulatory interactions in atherosclerosis can contribute to clinical exploitation of these interactions in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.