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Heissler, P.; Lugovoy, E.; Hoerlein, R.; Waldecker, L.; Wenz, J.; Heigoldt, M.; Khrennikov, K.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, Ferenc; Abel, B.; Tsakiris, G. D. (2014): Using the third state of matter: high harmonic generation from liquid targets. In: New Journal of Physics, Vol. 16, 113045


High harmonic generation on solid and gaseous targets has been proven to be a powerful platform for the generation of attosecond pulses. Here we demonstrate a novel technique for the XUV generation on a smooth liquid surface target in vacuum, which circumvents the problem of low repetition rate and limited shot numbers associated with solid targets, while it maintains some of its merits. We employed atomically smooth, continuous liquid jets of water, aqueous salt solutions and ethanol that allow uninterrupted high harmonic generation due to the coherent wake emission mechanism for over 8 h. It has been found that the mechanism of plasma generation is very similar to that for smooth solid target surfaces. The vapor pressure around the liquid target in our setup has been found to be very low such that the presence of the gas phase around the liquid jet could be neglected.