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Thomas, Peter; Iglhaut, Gerhard; Wollenberg, Andreas; Cadosch, Dieter; Summer, Burkhard (2013): Allergy or Tolerance: Reduced Inflammatory Cytokine Response and Concomitant IL-10 Production of Lymphocytes and Monocytes in Symptom-Free Titanium Dental Implant Patients. In: Biomed Research International, Vol. 2013, 539834




Hypersensitivity reactions to titanium (Ti) are very rare. Thus, we assessed the proinflammatory response and also potential tolerance favoring in vitro reactivity of human blood lymphocytes and monocytes (PBMC) to Ti in healthy individuals (14 without, 6 with complication-free dental Ti implants). The proliferation index (SI) in lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and production of cytokines linked to innate immune response (IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha) or immune regulation (IL-10) were assessed in response to TiO2 particles or Ti discs. In both groups, the Ti-LTT reactivity was not enhanced (e.g., SI < 3). The control antigen tetanus toxoid (TT) gave adequate reactivity (median SI individuals without/with implant: 20.6 +/- 5.97/19.58 +/- 2.99). Individuals without implant showed higher cytokine response to Ti materials than individuals with symptom-free implants; for example, TiO2 rutile particle induced increase of IL-1 beta 70.27-fold/8.49-fold versus control medium culture. PBMC of 5 of the 6 individuals with complication-free Ti implants showed an ex vivo ongoing production of IL-10 (mean 4.18 +/- 2.98 pg/mL)-but none of the 14 controls showed such IL-10 production. Thus in vitro IL-1 beta-, IL-6-, and TNF-alpha production reflects ``normal'' unspecific immune response to Ti. This might be reduced by production of tolerogenic IL-10 in individuals with symptom-free Ti dental implants.