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Menhofer, Magdalena H.; Kubisch, Rebekka; Schreiner, Laura; Zorn, Matthias; Foerster, Florian; Mueller, Rolf; Rädler, Joachim O.; Wagner, Ernst; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Zahler, Stefan (2014): The Actin Targeting Compound Chondramide Inhibits Breast Cancer Metastasis via Reduction of Cellular Contractility.
In: PLOS ONE 9(11), e112542
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Abstract

Background: A major player in the process of metastasis is the actin cytoskeleton as it forms key structures in both invasion mechanisms, mesenchymal and amoeboid migration. We tested the actin binding compound Chondramide as potential anti-metastatic agent. Methods: In vivo, the effect of Chondramide on metastasis was tested employing a 4T1-Luc BALB/c mouse model. In vitro, Chondramide was tested using the highly invasive cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in Boyden-chamber assays, fluorescent stainings, Western blot and Pull down assays. Finally, the contractility of MDA-MB-231 cells was monitored in 3D environment and analyzed via PIV analysis. Results: In vivo, Chondramide treatment inhibits metastasis to the lung and the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells is reduced by Chondramide in vitro. On the signaling level, RhoA activity is decreased by Chondramide accompanied by reduced MLC-2 and the stretch induced guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 activation. At same conditions, EGF-receptor autophosphorylation, Akt and Erk as well as Rac1 are not affected. Finally, Chondramide treatment disrupted the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the ability of cells for contraction. Conclusions: Chondramide inhibits cellular contractility and thus represents a potential inhibitor of tumor cell invasion.