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Broichhagen, Johannes; Damijonaitis, Arunas; Levitz, Joshua; Sokol, Kevin R.; Leippe, Philipp; Konrad, David; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Trauner, Dirk (2015): Orthogonal Optical Control of a G Protein-Coupled Receptor with a SNAP-Tethered Photochromic Ligand. In: ACS Central Science, Vol. 1, Nr. 7: S. 383-393
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Abstract

The covalent attachment of synthetic photoswitches is a general approach to impart light sensitivity onto native receptors. It mimics the logic of natural photoreceptors and significantly expands the reach of optogenetics. Here we describe a novel photoswitch design-the photoswitchable orthogonal remotely tethered ligand (PORTL)-that combines the genetically encoded SNAP-tag with photochromic ligands connected to a benzylguanine via a long flexible linker. We use the method to convert the G protein-coupled receptor mGluR2, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, into a photoreceptor (SNAG-mGluR2) that provides efficient optical control over the neuronal functions of mGluR2: presynaptic inhibition and control of excitability. The PORTL approach enables multiplexed optical control of different native receptors using distinct bioconjugation methods. It should be broadly applicable since SNAP-tags have proven to be reliable, many SNAP-tagged receptors are already available, and photochromic ligands on a long leash are readily designed and synthesized.